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Last updated: 1/25/2017
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Netherlandish Printmakers 16th-17th Centuries: Jan Saenredam (Dutch, c. 1565-1607):
History and Allegory

Saenredam Old Testament Subjects / Saenredam New Testament / Saenredam Mythological
Saenredam History and Allegory

North Italian Illuminated Manuscript / Italian Old Master Drawings: An Overview / Italian School, 16th-Century Drawings
Michelangelo Buonarotti (After) / Raphael / Giulio Romano / Perino del Vaga / Marcantonio Raimondi / Parmigianino
Titian (after) / Andrea Schiavone / Tintoretto / Veronese / Taddeo Zuccaro / Federico Zuccaro / Alessandro Casolani
Jacopo Palma il Giovane / Cherubino Alberti / Luca Cambiaso / Annibale Carracci / Ludovico Carracci

Italian School, 17th-Century Drawings / Bolognese School / Giovanni Baglione / Matteo Rosselli / Ercole Bazzicaluva
Baldassare Franceschini called Il Volterrano / Pier Francesco Mazzuccelli, il Morazzone / Odoardo Fialetti / Simone Cantarini
Domenichino / Francesco Albani / Giovanni Lanfranco / Guercino / Pier Francesco Mola / Antonio Busca

Italian School Printmakers, 15th-17th Centuries: Venetian School, c. 1497 / Raphael School / Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio
Marcantonio Raimondi / The Master of the Die / Anea Vico / Agostino Veneziano / Nicholas Beatrizet
Michelangelo Buonarotti (After) / Giulio Bonasone / Giovanni Battista Franco /Girolamo Fagiuoli / Cherubino Alberti
Titian (after) / Tintoretto (after) / Parmigianino / Giorgio Ghisi / Diana Scultori / Annibale Carracci / Ludovico Carracci
Agostino Carracci / Simone Cantarini / Elisabetta Sirani / Gerolamo Scarsello

Netherlandish School 15th-17th-Century Drawings / Flemish School, 17th-Century
Bernaert van Orley / Lucas van Leyden / Maarten de Vos / Jan Baptiste de Wael / Abraham Bloemaert
Peter Paul Rubens / Philipp Sadeler / Nicolaes Maes / Rembrandt School

Netherlandish Printmakers 16th-17th Centuries: Lucas van Leyden, Maarten van Heemskerck, Cornelis Cort
Philips Galle, Abraham de Bruyn, Hans (Jan) Collaert, Adriaen Collaert, Karel de Mallery, Theodore Galle, Hendrik Goltzius
Julius Goltzius, Jacob Matham, Jan Sanraedam, Maarten de Vos, Jan Sadeler, Aegidius Sadeler, Raphael Sadeler
Crispin de Passe, Magdalena de Passe, Wierix Brothers, Rembrandt, Rembrandt School, Jan Lievens, Jan Joris van Vliet,
Ferdinand Bol, Govert Flinck

German Drawings: Hans Sebald Beham / Virgil Solis / Hans von Aachen / Johann Heinrich Roos
German 16th century printmakers: Heinrich Aldegrever, Jost Amman, Hans Sebald Beham, Hans Brosamer, Hans Burgkmair,
Lucas Cranach, Albrecht Durer, Albrecht Durer (After), Hans Holbein (After), Hopfer Brothers, Georg Pencz, Hans Schäufelein,
Virgil Solis, Wolfgang Stuber.

French Drawings: Charles de La Fosse / Etienne Parrocel / François Boucher / Jean-François de Neufforge / Mouricault
French printmakers: School of Fontainebleau / Etienne Delaunne / Rene Boyvin /Thomas de Leu / Jean Cousin the Younger
Jacques Callot / Abraham Bosse / Sebastien Bourdon / Claude Gelle "le Lorraine" / Jean LePautre
Claudine Bouzonnet Stella / Antonette Bouzonnet Stella / Gabriel Perelle

19th-Century Drawings / 20th-Century Drawings
Saenredam was born in Zaandam, c. 1565. Orphaned in childhood, he was raised by an uncle, Pieter de Jongh, a bailiff in Assendelft. Though brought up for a life of farm labour and handiwork, he turned to drawing and in time attained some success as a mapmaker. With the help of a local lawyer, he entered the circle of Hendrick Goltzius relatively late in life, in 1589, and worked for short periods with both Goltzius and Jacques de Gheyn II. Saenredam was one of Goltzius' most important masters and worked closely with him, creating a major body of work. According to both de Bie and Schrevelius, there was some rivalry between each of these masters and Saenredam, who quickly absorbed what they had to offer him. About 1595 Saenredam returned to Assendelft, where he married and where his son Pieter, who later became famous for his paintings of the interiors of churches, was born. He died in Assendelft in 1607.

In Graven Images: The Rise of Professional Printmakers in Antwerp and Haarlem, 1540-1640, ed. Timothy Riggs and Larry Silver (Evanston: Mary and Leigh Block Gallery, Northwestern University, 1993), Riggs describes Saenredam's "most characteristic engraving style" as "similar to Goltzius' but more delicate, with silver tones and silky textures," as exemplified in The Expulsion from Eden after Abraham Bloemaert and The Foolish Virgins (both of which are illustrated in Graven Images and both of which will be found in the pages devoted to Saenredam on our website). Silver, in a chapter on "Goltzius as Evolutionary Reproductive Engraver," suggests that "the most important engraver after Goltzius was Jan Saenredam. . . . Saenredam began as Goltzius' apprentice and produced his first engravings in 1589 but he soon left after Goltzius criticsm to work with his fellow apprentice de Gheyn in Amsterdam for a couple of years. he then set up his own production shop for prints after Goltzius and other, younger designers, especially Bloemaert. . . . Saenredam followed the Goltzius lead in mking prints after similar designers: Polidoro da Caravaggio, Corneis van Haarlem, and an elaborate varian of his own on Goltzius' beached whale. Saenredam, too, promoted the Lucas van Leyden revival in his prints. He made engravings in 1600 after two surviving Lucas drawings: Jael and Judith. . . . " Silver points out that Saenredam's work after Goltzius (B. 40-103) extended for almost a full decade, and frequently included cycles, particularly allegories of the Four Seasons, Times of Day [see under Allegories], Five Senses, Seven Planets, and even Three Kinds of Marriage [see under Allegories]. In addition, Saenredam also frequently produced images of mythic deities after Goltzius, sometimes with an emblematic or allegorical message.

Selected Bibliography: K. G. Boon, Hollstein's Dutch and Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts ca. 1450-1700, vol. 23: Jan Saenredam to Roelandt Savery (Amsterdam: Van Gendt, 1980); Volume 4 of The Illustrated Bartsch gives the works of Goltzius' studio and followers, Matham, Saenredam, and Jan Muller, and illustrates all of Saenredam's works.
Lycurgus demonstrating the value of education (B. 7). Original engraving, 1596. A rich impression on laid paper with thread margins; some wear top right where part of the corner was lost and replaced with hand-drawn lines. Signed and dated in the plate: "Saenredam fecit 1596." Saenredam was one of Goltzius' most important masters and worked closely with him, creating a major body of work. The print depicts Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, demonstrating the power of education via the example of two dogs taught different things and acting differently as a consequence. Image size: 200x270mm. Price: $1750.
From the Wise and Foolish Virgins: The Foolish Virgins Dancing and Enjoying Temporal Pleasures (Bartsch 3, Hollstein 29). Original engraving, 1606, signed in the plate lower right center: "I Saendredam fe." Ours is a beautiful impression of this delightful visualization of Jesus' parable about those who are prepared for the coming of God and those who are not using the imagery of the Song of Songs. The Foolish virgins are sampling wine and hanging out with drunks. The one in the center has her feet resting on a book inscribed "Biblia Sacra." In the left rear, a handsome young man is trying to undress one of the virgins while in the right foreground a semi-naked young man is enjoying the embraces of a young woman who has suffered a clothing malfunction leaving her breast exposed in near proximity to his mouth. Trimmed just inside the platemark and lacking the inscription at bottom. With the collector's stamp of Charles M. Lea, whose collection was donated to the Philadelphia Museum of Art with their crossed out collection number verso. Image size: 249x356mm. Price: $4000.

Our photograph does not do justice to the sharp silver gray tonality of this impression.
A Marriage Founded Solely on Pleasure, Presided Over by Cupid (Bartsch 84, Hollstein 104 i/iii). Engraving after Goltzius, c. 1600. Rich early impression on laid paper of this archetypical erotic Dutch Mannerist print. Signed in the plate lower left: "HGoltzius inuent. / I Saendredam sculp." This is the first of the Three Kinds of Marriage (the other two are A Marriage Fouded on Wealth, Which is the Work of the Devil and A Marriage Founded Solely on Pure and Chaste Love, Which is Blessed by Christ). Ex-collection Jung with collector's stamp verso (not in Lugt). Trimmed within the platemark. Image size: 223x163mm. Price: $3250.
A Marriage Founded on wealth, Which is the Work of the Devil (Bartsch 85). Engraving after Goltzius, c. 1600. Rich early impression on laid paper of this rather moralistic Dutch Mannerist print. Inscribed "2" lower left. This is the second of the Three Kinds of Marriage (the other two are A Marriage Founded Solely on Pleasure, Presided Over by Cupid and A Marriage Founded Solely on Pure and Chaste Love, Which is Blessed by Christ). Thread margins on the top and sides; trimmed within the platemark at the bottom. Image size: 223x156mm. Price: $3250.
Morning (Bartsch 91, Hollstein 97 i/iii). Engraving after Goltzius, c. 1600. Rich early impression on laid paper. Signed in the plate just above the inscription: "HG. inue. / I Saendreda sculp." and numbered 1 at the bottom left of the inscription. This is the first of the four Times of the Day. Aurora arising from the sun is visible through the window on the left and the travellers on the right have turned as if to look at her. In the foreground, a mother feeds her children while the family dog begs for a share; behind them, an older youth holds a book from which the father of the house makes entries in his commonplace book. Elaborate watermark with banded horn as one of the central motifs. Trimmed within the platemark. Image size: 213x152mm. Price: $3000.

The set of four is available for $10,500.
Evening (Bartsch 92, Hollstein 98). Engraving after Goltzius, c. 1600. Very good impression on laid paper. Signed in the plate just above the inscription: "HG. inue", numbered 2 at the bottom left of the inscription and "G. Valck Exc" at the lower right. This is the second of the four Times of the Day. In the sky visible through the window at tear, Luna lights the way of a small group of travellers, one of whom carries a torch. In the foreground, a servant pours wine inro a cup; behind and to the left, a musician plays on a lute; between them, a young woman whose hand rests on the shoulder of an older man leans closer to talk; on the right, a man is kissing another woman. Elaborate watermark with a flaming torch. Trimmed within the platemark. Image size: 213x146mm. Price: $3000.
Noon (Bartsch 93, Hollstein 99 i/iii). Engraving after Goltzius, c. 1600. Very good impression on laid paper. Signed in the plate just above the inscription: "HG. inue", numbered 3 at the bottom left of the inscription. This is the third of the four Times of the Day. In the sky top right, Apollo as god of the sun rests on a cloud and sends out his beams to the plowman working in the fields at rear; in the foreground, a carpenter and his assistant are cutting and planing wood while at right a woman and her servant converse. Elaborate watermark with banded horn as one of the central motifs (the same as in plate one of the set). Trimmed just within the platemark. Image size: 210x148mm. Price: $3000.
Night (Bartsch 94, Hollstein 100 i/iii). Engraving after Goltzius, c. 1600. Very good impression on laid paper. Signed in the plate just above the inscription: "HG. inuent", numbered 4 at the bottom left of the inscription. This is the last of the four Times of the Day. In a drawing or print hanging on the wall in the left rear, Nox speards her cloak over a man and a dog sleeping on the ground; in the foreground, a woman sleeps in her chair while behind her, another woman adjusts a blanket over her sleeping companion (these seem to be the central cople in plate 2, Evening. At the lower right, a cat stares into a fireplace. Watermark: a bird of some sort, perhaps a goose. Trimmed on or just within the platemark. There is a small stain outside the image in the right margin. Image size: 211x150mm. Price: $3000.
Spes / Hope (Bartsch 82). Engraving after Goltzius. Very good impression on laid paper. Signed in the plate just above the inscription: "HGoltzius inuent. / I Saendredam sculp." One of three engravings depicting the theological virtues of Faith, Hope (with her anchor), and Charity. Watermark: a large very elaborate construction I cannot read clearly. Trimmed on or just within the platemark. There are several stains (some quite small like the dot with halo above and to the left of Hope's head or the spot on the forward leg of the cherub on the left; others larger like the one to the right of Hope's head or at the edge of her drapery at the middle of the stone on which she sits). These stains are yellowish-orange in color and may have been caused by contact with oil. A beautiful large image marred by the stains. Image size: 305x207mm. Price: $1850.
Jan Saenredam, AFTER, The Wise and Foolish Virgins: The Wise Virgins Go with Their Lamps Lit, and are Received by the Bridegroom (Bartsch 5, Hollstein 11, reverse copy). Engraving after Jan Saenredam, after 1605. Beautiful impression with large margins on laid paper. At right, one of the wise virgins rejects the request of the foolish virgins for the loan of her oil. Trimmed outside the platemark with an old vertical centerfold. Published (and engraved?) by Niclaes [Claes] Jansz. Visscher (Amsterdam c. 1587-1660). Visscher kept the works of the Northern Mannerists before the public eye by reissuing them and, when necessary, having copies made of them. Image size: 252x337mm. Price: $1450.

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